Categories
Vaporwave

Operation Vaporwave 2121

Going to be kicking off a new project for a set of singles to push the envelope of what vaporwave can be. I’ve been thinking about this for a while, and I think it would really work because vaporwave isn’t a specific thing, it’s more of an aesthetic. There isn’t an exact drum beat or tempo range that it has to be to fall into the category, or specific chord progressions. I think my inspiration came from Blank Banshee doing vaporwave + trap. If that sounds awesome, why stop there?

The Plan

The plan is to begin a series of tracks that combine a new genera of music with vaporwave, and to try the most far out types of music to see if it will work. One of the things I love about vaporwave is that you can play all sorts of harmonies that super far out, and not have to worry so much about it sounding too experimental.

The Timeline

Since I already have April 2021 lined with releases, the first one should be ready to go for May 2021. Check back for updates, as I want to keep the next style mashup a surprise!

Categories
Music Production Synthwave Vaporwave

Synthwave Vs Vaporwave

I’ve seen lots of posts on this, so decided to give my take on the topic. Synthwave and Vaporwave are both kinds of retro inspired electronic music subgenres that both have the same kind of nostalgia vibes.

Aesthetic Differences

While both genres share similar visual influences, I would say that synthwave draws more from mid 80’s synth pop. It uses a lot of 80’s style neon colors, and futuristic artwork. Vaporwave draws more from mid 90’s-mid 00’s artwork. It often uses themes from early, and low poly computer graphics.

Production Differences

Production wise, there are a few key differences I find between the two. Vaporwave, not always, but often is sample based. Lots of Vaporwave producers use samples from the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s to create new tracks. Often the degraded tape feel of lofi is desired. In Synthwave, I hardly ever hear any samples, or lofi effects. I find that vaporwave is often slower, and can sound closer to smooth jazz mixed with lofi. Synthwave is usually more high energy. Slow, or down tempo synthwave often sounds like space music.

Synthwave sounds

Synthwave has some common recurring production elements. One common element is the gated reverb snare sound. This type of snare was popularized in the 80’s and used for lots of electronic synth pop. The sound is pretty noticeable because it will sound like the snare is in a huge arena, or hall.

Another common synthwave element is the plucked bass. This type of bass is created by using a synth with a quick attack, and short sustain and release. This is often coupled with a filter which quickly cuts off the high end. The resulting sound is a short bass stab. Then these bass plucks are often put in patterns of repeating 16th. Check out this sample from the track “Nightcrawler”.

Vaporwave Sounds

Vaporwave sounds much jazzier compared to synthwave. Another common vaporwave technique is to slow down, and pitch shift down samples, or the entire song. Here is an example of the track “56 Kbit/s Magic” which is much more down tempo, and borderline funk.

Synthwave v Vaporwave: Dawn of Vaporsynth

“The Zone” is one of my favorite tracks that combines synthwave and vaporwave elements. It has the reverby snare and drums from a 80’s synth pop track, but also has some degraded lofi sections, and funk bassline. There are lot of intricate melodies and counter melodies in this one, along with some chromatic chords. I think the melodies and harmonies on this one are too jazzy for a synthwave track, but are done with synthwave style synths. One unique thing about this track is that Cliche64 plays guitar on this one instead of me!

Do I think there is overlap? Absolutely

Categories
Mastering Music Production

What’s In My Mastering Chain in 2021

Since the beginning of lockdown I had some more time to work on polishing music so I decided to take the dive into self mastering. I did some mastering in the past but never considered myself a mastering engineer. Now that I’ve been writing a lot more music, I like to be able to control every aspect of the chain all the way till the end. So here is a breakdown of my chain fof 2021.

The Setup

So this is a bit odd, but I do most everything in Abelton, in the same session. So I’ll producer, mix, and master all in one project. Does it destroy my CPU? Yes. Is it convenient? Also yes. I like doing this because I can fix things in the mix without having to re open a session and re-export every time I want to change something. This way, I don’t have to do that much heavy handed changes in the mastering chain.

The Mastering Chain

Eq -> Compress -> Saturate -> Clip -> Limit

First in line is EQ. My go-to is Fabfilter ProQ3. I use it to gently roll of the side channels in the low end and sometimes add a little bit of side boost with the high end. I’ll occasionally do some minor cuts, but I’d rather go look in the mix and cut it directly on that instrument. I also may do some bumps for presence or bass. I never do any sort of harsh eq moves here.

Next compression. My current choice is Plugin-Alliance Shadow Hills compressor. Usually very light, only for glue. No more than 1db of reduction here. I’ll toggle some of the settings around and see what sounds good.

Next, saturation. Currently using Sonnox inflator. A little goes a long way here. Just play with the 2 sliders until I get something I like.

Clipping stage is next, and I use Standard Clip. Depending on the mix I can clip quite a bit of db here. I always have it in Pro mode, with 8 or 16x over sampling. The clipper allows the heavy loudness processing to split between the clipper and the limiter, instead of having the Limiter do everything.

Finally Fabfilter Pro-L2 for final limiting. Usually, slow attack, fast release, and low look ahead. I don’t really mind inter sample peaks, so I keep the true peak at almost 0db.

Utilities

After the actual processing chain, I add a few utilities. Metric AB from plugin alliance helps me quickly a/b different mixes. TC electronic Clarity M gives me an additional meter that doesn’t take up screen real estate. Finally I’ll add Sonarworks to do some room correction.

Categories
Music Production Synthwave

Making Cymbals and Percussion More Interesting

When adding cymbals and percussion in tracks, the obvious starting places to create more interesting sounds is to pan, eq, and pitch shift. For example, you can have 1 high hat sound, and you can pitch it 4 times up, creating 4 different hat sounds, and pan them left to right. This will add some interesting dimension to the percussive elements, but I like to take it a step further.

Creating pseudo random variation

In addition to some of this basic panning, I like to add some subtle extra effects that change over time. One of my favorite things to do is to add a Haas, or widening effect, and modulate it over time with an LFO. A great tool to do this is Khz Multipass that comes with the Slate bundle. I like it because it has some built in LFOs, and multi band effects. So one of my starting points is to put a Haas effect on the high channel of hats or shakers and set the delay to modulate.

What I also like to do is make the LFO rate be something that won’t sync to the BPM of the track. The reason I want to do this is because I want every single bar to be slightly different. I can set the LFO to repeat at something synced to the bpm such as 1/4 notes or even 1 bar. What will happen is that the effect will start at the same time every bar, and what I want to happen is that it never lines up at the beginning of the bar. This will result in completely random variations across the track. After adding some width, I also play around with some other effects at random like chorus, phasers ect.

Using Stock Plugins

It’s not necessary to use Multipass to accomplish this. I mainly use Ableton, and can also do it with the built in LFO, map it to 1 side of a delay, and play around with the rest of the knobs to taste. It’s also possible to just open up an automation lane and draw some random lines.

If you don’t have an LFO tool, you can also just draw out some random automation in an automation lane.

This works on all sorts of percussion instruments. I often put subtle delay, chorus, flanger, distortion on any percussive instruments like bongos, claps, and shakers. The only percussion element I typically would not modify with one of these effects would be kick and snare, since they are the most important elements to drive the rhythm.

What does it sound like?

Here is an example with Jetfire Prime on a synthwave track where the stereo modulation on the hi-hats is really apparent. If you listen closely to the high hats they get super wide at some points and then narrow. It gives it just another layer of variation that doesn’t repeat exactly on beat, so every measure, the width will be slightly different, but never repeating the same.

Categories
Music Production Music Theory Vaporwave

Modal Mixture in Electronic Music

Modal mixture is a common technique in Jazz and Classical, and even in video game and music scores, but often overlooked in electronic music. Most electronic music revolved around diatonic harmony, meaning harmonies derived only from the 7 notes of the major scale.

What is Modal Mixture?

Mode mixture is simply mix and matching harmonies from a parallel mode. The most common method is to line up the parallel major and minor modes (Ionian and Aeolian) and in the major key, borrow the chords from Aeolian. This means if we are in the key of C major, we can now borrow chords from C minor.

There are some notes overlapping, but not all, and the parallel minor chords result in 7 brand new chords to spice up any progression! These take a little more finesse to fit into a progression, but they provide some very interesting harmonies. The idea is the create a chord progression using chords from the second column, then sneakily throw in, or swap one chord from one of the available chords on the 4th column. This expands our pallet of chords from 7 to 14! Each one takes practice to figure out where it best fits. It takes a lot of tinkering to fit them in, but it’s very satisfying when you get them in just the right spot.

This expands our pallet of chords from 7 to 14!

One of the important things for creating progressions with mixture chords is to make sure that the naming convention makes sense. For example, C minor is the relative of Eb major, so chord names should be using flats, and in the list of chords, each letter name should only be used 1 time.

Examples

Writing about music theory is cool, but seeing and hearing examples is where it all comes together.

Let’s take a look at the track “Icicles”. The main progression is

Cm9 AbM9 Fm7 GbM7

vii IV ii bIII

So the progression is kind of in C minor/Eb major but we get an extra chord GbM7 which is borrowed from the key of Eb minor. When ends up happening is that the progression sounds like the tonal center is kind of not exactly C minor, but also is. It blends in fairly well and doesn’t sound like an out of place chord.

Categories
Music Theory

Learning Violin First Week

Violin

So I got my hands on a violin. I’ve been thinking about this for a while because I haven’t been satisfied with any orchestral samplers. In some instances they can sound really good, but what gets me the most is the articulations are just not quite right to my ear. So I’m just going to take the dive and learn how to play them myself. I got on Amazon and ordered beginner violin. This is my first week and these are my findings!

So step one was to map out the fingerboard. this isn’t too fancy, just using google docs, mapped out all 7 modes with 4 notes per string. The first thing I noticed is that there are way less combinations to memorize than learning guitar because all the intervals are always fifths from string to string. So if I choose Ionian, and bump it over 1 string higher, I only have to relearn the lowest string starting on note number 4 to learn lydian.

So I’ve almost got them all memorized, but still having a little bit of a hard time judging the distances between the notes. Even small distances off, translate to notes being out of tune. The other tricky part is getting good tone. It’s actually not terribly hard while staying on the same string and bowing, but moving string to string can be tricky. One second it sounds really good, and the next second it sounds like screaming cats.

All and all, for simple whole notes I think it already sounds way, way better than any of my Kontakt libraries. I think so far what I like the best is the articulations sound much much better. I still have a long way to go on improving the tone but I think within a few weeks I should be able to do some of my own basic violin lines. I’ll post some samples next week!

Categories
Music Theory

More Pentatonic Scales

When talking about “the” pentatonic scale, most people are referring to the minor pentatonic scale. That doesn’t mean that there only has to be 1 single pentatonic scale. A pentatonic scale is just a scale that has 5 notes. If we take a look at how the pentatonic scale fits into the major scale, we can derive more pentatonic scales, and hopefully be inspired by new sounds, that are created by subtracting notes, instead of adding!

Let’s start by reviewing the major scale’s basic pattern:

W W H W W W H

Now if we rotate it so that the minor scale is centered on the natural minor mode (Aeolian) we get:

W H W W H W W

And if we placed this in Cmajor/Aminor we get the notes:

A B C D E F G

Now if we were to select the minor pentatonic notes, starting on A, we get:

A B C E F

Let’s see what happens if we overlay them:

A B C D E F G

So.. it turns out that you can create the minor pentatonic scale by taking the natural minor scale, and dropping scale degrees 2, and 6. This just means we can play A minor pentatonic scale, in the key of A minor. Let’s do some more exploration though. The major scale is a 7 note scale, and 1 mode per scale tone. What would happen if we apply the pattern of dropping scale tones 4, and 7 from other major scale modes?

Exploring new Pentatonic Scales

Let’s try on the next mode up, which would be Locrian, or mode 7:

B C D E F G A

MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3

Now let’s drop the 4th and 7th scale degree starting from here:

B C D E F G A

Click the play button to hear the result. You will find that it sounds very different from the regular modes, or minor pentatonic. It has its own new flavor, just by omitting a different combination of notes.

MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3

We can apply this same logic to all the modes of the major scale and see what results we get. It’s interesting keep track of which kinds of intervals each pentatonic scale has, to see how many unique kinds of pentatonic scales we create.

Mode # Pentatonic Third Forth Fifth Seventh
Ionian 1 Major Major Perfect Perfect Major
Dorian 2 Minor Minor Perfect Perfect Minor
Phrygian 3 Hirachōshi Minor Perfect Perfect Minor
Lydian 4 Minor Major Augmented Perfect Major
Mixolydian 5 Sypro? Major Perfect Perfect Minor
Aeolian 6 Minor Minor Perfect Perfect Minor
Locrian 7 Kumoi Minor Perfect diminished minor

Here are all the notes in the scale if we are in the key of C major/Aminor:

Mode # 1 3 4 5 6
Ionian 1 C E F G B
Dorian 2 D F G A C
Phrygian 3 E G A B D
Lydian 4 F A B C E
Mixolydian 5 G B C D F
Aeolian 6 A C D E G
Locrian 7 B D E F A

Analyzing the results

So looking at the chart and going through every mode and dropping the relative 2nd and 6th scale degrees, it turns out we have 5 unique pentatonic patterns. It also turns out that “the” minor pentatonic pattern works on 3 different modes, Aeolian, Dorian and Phrygian. That means if you are in A minor, you can play the minor pentatonic starting on A, D or E. The more interesting ones I think are the ones based around 4, 5 and 7. I like 4 because it has the augmented 4th and sounds a bit more mystical or something.

MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3
MusicSheetViewerPlugin 3.0.3

Now how is this useful for production? In a given key, choose one of the pentatonic scales to create a melody around. Check out the track Alkaline With One Trak featuring the hirajoshi pentatonic! The melodies on this track were created only using the pentatonic based on lydian.

Categories
Music Theory Songs Vaporwave

Aesthetic

Aesthetic is a track That has got some down tempo vibes, and features an electric guitar solo with a jazz fusion sound.

Let’s break down the track. The main chord progression is:

F#m7 | Dmaj7 | Fmaj7 | Em7 | Gmaj7

The key in this track is mostly D major, but one of the chords doesn’t belong. This progression uses mode mixture to borrow a chord from the parallel minor key. Using roman numerals the progression is:

iii – I – ♭III – ii – IV

What I like about this progression is that it doesn’t appear to gravitate directly towards D major, or the relative minor B minor. Instead it starts on chord 3, which would make that mode be phrygian, which is also a type of minor mode. The interesting chord here is the F major7, the 3rd chord in the progression. How did we end up with F major7 in the key of D major? Its a borrowed chord from the parallel minor key. The parallel minor of D major is D minor. In D minor, the third chord is F major 7.

So what happens when you try to play a melody? If you keep playing D major over the Fmaj7 chord, there will be some notes that will not line up. So the melody has to agree to also drop the sharps on the F# and C#. So right as the F major 7 Plays, all instruments in the arrangement must also put naturals on their F’s and C’s.

The bridge also has another mixture chord on chord IV. Right as the last main melody section comes in, it gives it just a little bit of time to breathe and kind of goes to a different place.

IV | iv

Layers

One of my favorite things about Aesthetic is the multiple layers of pads and moving percussion. There are multiple types of pads that come in and out, multiple shaker groups, and bongo groups that layer to add subtle variation and fullness.

Categories
Lofi Music Production Vaporwave

Why I don’t use Samples

By samples I mean full samples from other tracks. A sample is basically a piece of audio recorded from an existing song. Lots of types of music are sample based. Essentially, a loop from an existing song is taken, modified, and new track is built around that. Lots of vaporwave, lofi, and future funk uses samples from old songs. There is a lot of room for creativity in manipulating the samples.

Remix vs Cover?

I do lots of video game covers, but they are technically not remixes. Sometimes the terms are confusing because they get interchanged, but technically, a remix is a type of song that also uses original audio. A cover rebuilds the sounds without using the original audio. If you were to take the midi from a song, run it through your own synths and create audio, then its a cover. If you record the actual song and put it in your song, then its a remix.

Remixes and other sample based songs come with a lot of legal difficulties because it’s hard to get the right permissions to use audio samples. Cover licensing is fairly easy to come get. A lot of distributors offer low cost licensing options for doing covers. They usually take care of sending the original songwriter a cut of the royalties. The reason that I don’t make sample based vaporwave isn’t rooted in the legal issues, but for me, its simply workflow.

But Why Tho?

I don’t have a DJ background so I don’t have experience stitching songs together. I do have lots of experience playing in bands and writing parts for multiple instruments. For my workflow in Ableton, It’s easier for me to write the parts out in midi, and create an arrangement around that. I like to move notes around in different midi lanes, and it’s not possible to modify individual instruments on rendered samples. In a sample, you can’t easily change things like the chords. I also don’t have a collection of songs that I would use for sampling, and wouldn’t even know where to start looking.

Samples or no Samples?

In conclusion, sample based music is definitely very cool, and some of the “sound” comes from modifying rendered audio. For my workflow, midi works best because I like having control of all the midi, and can write quickly like that. I do however occasionally sample myself. I’ll take rendered portions of my other songs and slice them up or slow them down for effects.

Categories
Uncategorized

Onto New Adventures

Launching an all new blog site for 2021! I’ve been meaning to do this for a while, and have been tinkering with a few site ideas, but finally came to the conclusion that I just need a simple blog site. I’ve been writing a lot of new music lately and I wanted to have a place to share more background about the music. There’s a lot more music theory, composition, and production I’ve been meaning to share, that might be difficult to hear, but can make the music that much more interesting if you know what to listen for!